Yes. At least 12 hrs fasting is required for this test. While fasting the person can have only plain water.
Anti Mullerian Hormone test can be done on any day of the menstrual cycle.
Urine sample should always be collected in the sterileclean container. Before collecting the sample, the patient has to clean the surrounding area (genitals). While passing the urine patient should discard the first part of the urine and collect the ensuing part. This sample is also called as Mid-stream urine sample. The container should be labeled properly and the cap tightly screwed to avoid leakage of the sample.
Patient must give his/her blood sample (for post lunch sugar test) 2hrs after finishing the lunch. The lunch should consist of routine meal which the patient has regularly.
For all practical and routine purposes, it is ideal to transfuse to the patient the same group of blood which he/she belongs to. It is only under very dire emergencies that we take O group as universal donor and AB groups as universal recipient. Under no circumstances O group can get any other blood except O. Similarly A group patient cannot be given B group blood and vice versa.
Complete Blood Count will tell us Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell count, Red cell indices, Total White Blood Cell count, and Differential count of White blood cells, Platelet count and findings of Peripheral smear.
No need to come fasting. Patient can give a blood sample at any time.
But patient should give us the following information:
Before submitting, keep the following in mind:
Fasting is not required for HbA1c test. Patient can give sample at any time.
Patient has to give blood sample only once in the day.
Patient should do his/her HbA1c test once in Three months.
T3, T4, Free T3, Free T4 and TSH are main tests related to Thyroid functions.
Cerebrospinal Fluid is the fluid which protects and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
A PAP smear is a test in which doctor collects a small tissue sample from the cervix (External and Internal parts) and examines the same under the microscope to detect any cancerous cells or any infection.
The procedure is painless and similar to routine gynaecologic (per vaginal) examination. Sometimes, the patient might feel some discomfort. The doctor inserts an instrument called a speculum (it looks like a duck’s bill) into the vagina to see the cervix. Then, using a tiny spatula or brush, the doc takes a sample of cells from the cervix. The cells are sent to a lab for examination.
Low hemoglobin could be one of the causes of Anemia. Due to anemia patient might feel weak and may experience headache and fatigue.
Yes, it is necessary to consult the physician and get investigated for bleeding disorders as well as for liver diseases.
As we all know that PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE. Regular health check up will help us to detect the disease in its early stage even before the onset of symptoms. This gives the patient a better chance for treatment and cure.
Tests available for HIV detection in the blood are as follows:
Crown & Bridges
A dental crown completely encases a damaged tooth with a custom design, custom fit cap that fitsv perfectly over a damaged tooth. The crown thereby restores full functionality to a tooth.
A bridge, also known as a fixed prosthesis, is made to replace one or more missing teeth. Unlike dentures it cannot be removed daily and cleaned. Bridges can be supported in any of three ways:
Crowns may be placed for several reasons. Usually the tooth has been broken or severely damaged by decay. As a result, a filling can’t replace enough of the tooth or make the tooth strong enough. A crown may hold together parts of a cracked tooth. It also can be used to hold a bridge in place. Crowns can be used to improve appearance as well. They may be placed to cover misshapen or badly discolored teeth. They are also used to cover a dental implant. It can also be used to protect a weak tooth from fracturing.
There are 3 primary materials- all ceramic (porcelain), porcelain fused to metal, or gold.
There is a risk of gum infection and inflammation. There can be allergies to the materials being used. It also requires two healthy teeth adjacent the missing tooth to be shaped to accept the crowns of the new dental bridge.
Dental implants are used for replacing missing teeth today. While dental implants are more costly their benefits are much greater.
There are many types of bridges:
Root Canal Treatment
Root canal therapy is necessary when the pulp ie the nerve of the root is removed because it has been irreversibly damaged or infected due to decay, trauma or injuries. The therapy involves removal of the pulp throughout the root, cleaning and shaping the root and filling it with a synthetic polyester root canal filling material.
You need a root canal in case you have one of the following symptoms :
With modern techniques and local anesthesia, its likely not to hurt during the procedure. However certain patients feel slightly sensitive.
In most cases the discomfort will subside dramatically within the first 24-48 hours. Any sensitivity to cold, hot or even breathing air “in” will be gone after your visit. Nevertheless, you may experience mild discomfort to pressure that could last for several days after treatment. Taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory analgesics (pain killers that are available without a prescription at the chemist) such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin usually relieves this discomfort. Tylenol has been proven not to be as effective as ibuprofen and related medicines. The most common predictor of post-treatment pain is pre-treatment pain. If the tooth is already hurting the root canal procedure will remove the cause and allow healing to begin. During the first 72 – 96 h we will prescribe an analgesic regimen that should allow you to begin healing pain-free. The most common complaint is tenderness to touch, bite, tapping or chewing on the tooth. It is always best to chew on the other side until a permanent restoration replaces the temporary restoration.
The single most important benefit of root canal therapy is that you keep your tooth. Extraction may lead to other dental problems. For instance, drifting of teeth, bite problems, TMJ discomfort, and the need to treat adjacent teeth that do not otherwise need dental treatment in order to restore the missing tooth. No matter how effective modern tooth replacements are – and they can be very effective – nothing is a good as your natural tooth.
After a root canal, a final restoration will be placed on the tooth. After the restoration a crown i.e. cap will be placed on the tooth since the tooth becomes brittle after root canal procedures and its necessary to prevent the forces acting on the tooth.
If the root canal has been done in a timely way and after that proper home care is taken and regular periodontal check ups are done, there is a chance that the tooth will last a life time maybe even for life.
Pain is only one indication that root canal treatment may be necessary. A healthy patient may harbor an infection inside a tooth, but due to a robust ability to fight infection, the patient may be unaware of what is happening inside the tooth. Your general dentist can often identify these teeth and refer you to an endodontist to have these infected teeth treated by root canal therapy before they cause swelling and pain.
[12/04 2:09 pm] Dr Surendra Pisal:
Flossing teeth and brushing have the same importance, and we should use the dental floss once a day at least, but ideally should be done after every meal.
Floss helps to remove leftover food particles between the teeth and inside the gum pockets, which reduces the volume of plaque inside the mouth. And flossing is especially important in the prevention of gum disease, which is the main cause of tooth loss and the incidence of tooth decay.
As for mouthwash (rinsing), has several functions. Mouthwash genitive fluoride may help in the prevention of tooth decay, but mouthwash cleanser has temporarily kills certain bacteria that cause mouth odors.
Tooth decay happens when the enamel and dentine of a tooth become softened by acid attack after you have eaten or drunk something that contains sugars. Over time, the acid makes a cavity (hole) in the tooth. ‘Dental decay’ is the same as tooth decay and is also known as ‘dental caries’.
Tooth decay is caused by plaque acids that gradually dissolve away the enamel and dentine of the tooth. Decay damages your teeth and may require fillings or extraction.
Plaque is a thin, sticky film that keeps forming on your teeth. It contains many types of bacteria.
Enamel is the hard, protective outer coating of the tooth and is the hardest part of the body. It does not contain any nerves or blood vessels and is not sensitive to pain.
Dentine lies under the enamel, forming most of the tooth, and it can be very sensitive to pain. Dentine covers the central ‘pulp’ of the tooth.
Decay happens when sugars in food and drinks react with the bacteria in plaque, forming acids. Every time you eat or drink anything containing sugars, these acids attack the teeth and start to soften and dissolve the enamel.
Snacking between meals on sugary or acidic foods and drinks can increase the risk of decay, as the teeth come under constant attack and do not have time to recover. It is therefore important not to keep snacking on sugary foods or sipping sugary drinks throughout the day.
In the early stages of dental decay there are no symptoms, but your dentist may be able to spot a cavity in its early stages when they examine or x-ray your teeth. This is why you should visit your dentist regularly, as small cavities are much easier to treat than advanced decay.
Once the cavity has reached the dentine your tooth may become sensitive, particularly with sweet foods and drinks, and acidic or hot foods.
As the decay gets near the dental pulp you may suffer from toothache. If the toothache is brought on by hot or sweet foods this may last for only a few seconds. As the decay gets closer to the dental pulp the pain may last longer. In this case, visit your dentist straight away as the tooth is dying and you may develop a dental abscess if it is not treated on time.
Toothache is a sign that you should visit a dentist straight away, as it is a warning that something is wrong. If you don’t do anything, this will usually make matters worse and you may lose a tooth that could otherwise have been saved.
The biting surfaces of the teeth and the surfaces between the teeth are most likely to decay, as food and plaque can get stuck in these areas. But any part of the tooth can be at risk.
If the decay is not too serious, the dentist will remove all the decay and restore the tooth with a filling. Sometimes the nerve in the middle of the tooth can be damaged. If so, the dentist will need to do a root canal treatment by removing the nerve and then restoring the tooth with a filling or a crown. If the tooth is so badly decayed that it cannot be restored, the dentist may have to extract it.
No. In the very early stages of decay, your dentist may apply a fluoride varnish onto the area. This can help stop further decay and help ‘remineralise’ the tooth. However, it is important to follow the cleaning routine your dentist, using fluoride toothpaste to prevent decay starting again.
The best way to prevent dental decay is by brushing your teeth thoroughly twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, making sure that you brush the inner, outer and biting surfaces of your teeth. Using ‘interdental’ brushes, or dental floss also helps remove plaque and food from between your teeth and where they meet the gums. These are the areas where an ordinary toothbrush can’t reach.
As each of the adult molars (back teeth) appears, and if the tooth is free from decay, a ‘fissure sealant’ can be used to protect the tooth. The sealant is a plastic coating that fills all the little crevices in the tooth surface, creating a flat surface that is easier to clean. This is called a ‘pit and fissure sealant’. Adults can also have this treatment if the teeth are free from decay. Your dentist will discuss whether this is right for you.
Visit your dentist regularly, as often as they recommend, and have sugary and acidic food and drinks less often. Avoid snacking between meals to limit the times your teeth are under attack from acids.
Chewing sugar-free gum for up to twenty minutes after a meal can help your mouth produce more saliva, which helps to cancel out any acids which have been formed.
Your dentist will show you what areas you need to take most care of while cleaning. They will also show you how to brush and floss correctly.
Tooth whitening can be a very effective way of lightening the natural colour of your teeth without removing any of the tooth surfaces. It may not make a complete colour change, but it will definitely lighten the existing shade.
There are a number of reasons why you might get your teeth whitened. Everyone is different; and just as our hair and skin colour vary, so do our teeth. Very few people have brilliant-white teeth, and our teeth can also become more discoloured as we get older.
Your teeth can also be stained on the surface by food and drinks such as tea, coffee, red wine and blackcurrant. Smoking can also stain teeth.
‘Calculus’ or tartar can also affect the colour of your teeth. Some people may have staining under the surface, which can be caused by certain antibiotics or tiny cracks in the teeth which take up stains.
This mode of treatment has solely been developed to lighten teeth in a simple and comfortable manner. It can bring about a dramatic change in an almost everyone’s smile by changing a dull smile and yellow teeth to a bright smile with white teeth. The advantages of teeth bleaching are as follows:-
Professional bleaching is the most usual method of tooth whitening. Your dentist will be able to tell you if you are suitable for the treatment, and will supervise it if you are. First the dentist will put a rubber shield or a gel on your gums to protect them. They will then apply the whitening product to your teeth, using a specially made tray which fits into your mouth like a gum-shield.
Your Dentist will polish your teeth and check their current shade.
First the dentist will protect your gums and lips and will then apply the bleaching agent on the teeth to be lightened and leave it there for a specific period of time. Intermittently, your teeth may be exposed to a special light, which will accelerate the bleaching process. Alternatively, you may be given a tray containing the bleaching agent to wear while in the dental office.
The teeth bleaching procedure usually takes about one hour.
The effects of whitening are thought to last up to three years. However, this will vary from person to person. The effect is less likely to last as long if you smoke, or eat or drink products that can stain your teeth. Ask your dentist for their opinion before you start the treatment.
Some people may find that their teeth become sensitive to cold during or after the treatment. Others may have discomfort in the gums, a sore throat or white patches on the gum line. These symptoms are usually temporary and should disappear within a few days of the treatment finishing.
If any of these side effects continue you should go to your dentist.
Tooth whitening can only lighten your existing tooth colour. Also it only works on natural teeth. It will not work on any types of ‘false’ teeth such as dentures, crowns and veneers.
If your dentures are stained or discoloured visit your dentist and ask for them to be cleaned.
You can help to keep your teeth white by cutting down on the amount of food and drink you have that can stain teeth. Don’t forget, stopping smoking can also help prevent discolouration and staining.
We recommend the following tips to care for your teeth:
Cleaning teeth which is professionally called Scaling is the regular removal of stains and tartar from the tooth surface. Whereas teeth bleaching otherwise called tooth whitening is a procedure done to improve the whiteness of the teeth and make it look better cosmetically.
Teeth may be sensitive during the week following the bleaching. This can be dramatically reduced by using Sensodyne toothpaste to brush your teeth the week prior to and the week following the bleaching process.
Generally, bleaching is successful in at least 90 percent of patients, though it may not be an option for everyone. Consider tooth bleaching if your teeth are darkened from age, coffee, tea or smoking. Teeth darkened with the color of yellow, brown or orange respond better to lightening.
The minimum suggested age for any type of bleaching is around the age of 14. It is best when root development is complete.
The American Dental Association recognizes bleaching as the most effective short-term duration treatment in the lightening of tooth color when performed under dental supervision. The bleaching solution can cause teeth to become temporarily temperature sensitive. This goes away within a few days of bleaching completion and no long-term ill effects have been reported.
The bleaching effect on each person is different, and it also depends on the cause of the discoloration. Generally the whitening effect will look more dramatic when you start off with darker teeth than if you already have lighter coloured teeth.
Teeth’s cleaning is a part of oral hygiene and involves the removal of dental plaque from teeth with the intention of preventing cavities and gum diseases.