Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)


Do we require fasting for performing a Lipid Profile test?

Yes. At least 12 hrs fasting is required for this test. While fasting the person can have only plain water.

On which day of the menstrual cycle can the test for Anti Mullerian Hormone be done?

Anti Mullerian Hormone test can be done on any day of the menstrual cycle.

How should one collect a urine sample?

Urine sample should always be collected in the sterileclean container. Before collecting the sample, the patient has to clean the surrounding area (genitals). While passing the urine patient should discard the first part of the urine and collect the ensuing part. This sample is also called as Mid-stream urine sample. The container should be labeled properly and the cap tightly screwed to avoid leakage of the sample.

How to collect 24hrs urine sample?

  • Empty your bladder when you first get up in the morning. DISCARD this Urine. Record the time on the container.
  • From that time, save all urine up to and including the first morning specimen at the end of the 24 hours ( or other designated time period). During collection and until the specimen is brought to the laboratory, the urine container should be refrigerated or kept on ice(in a bucket).
  • Record on the urine container, the time the last part of the specimen was collected.
  • Be careful not to deposit toilet tissue in the specimen or allow it to become contaminated with fecal material.
  • If the container has a preservative, (orange sticker or written), handle the container with caution. Specific instructions are available on the yellow label, and/or by calling the laboratory.
  • Bring the container with the urine to the laboratory as soon as possible. As a part of some tests, a blood sample must also be collected. Check with the laboratory to verify that a sample is not needed.

How to collect the sputum sample?

  • The mouth should be free of any foreign matter. If available, the mouth may be rinsed with filtered or sterile water prior to collection.
  • Sputum should be coughed from deep in the chest and coughed into the plastic collection bottle. To reduce the likelihood of transmission to others, patients are encouraged to collect their sputum specimens outdoors whenever possible.
  • Sputum specimens will be collected in the early morning if possible.
  • A hot drink or breathing deeply over a steam vessel (i.e. pan of boiling water) may help raise sputum.
  • A specimen of 1-2 teaspoons in volume is adequate. The container should not be more than ½ full. Following collection, the top will be placed securely on the plastic bottle.
  • Unless instructed otherwise, collect 3 sputum specimens on 3 consecutive days.
  • The specimen bottle must be labeled with the patient’s name, date of birth and the date the specimen was collected.
  • The laboratory slip must be completed with the patient’s name, date of birth and the date the specimen was collected.
  • The plastic bottle and the lab slip will then be placed in the mailing tube with the screw top securely closed.

How much time after lunch should one give his/her blood sample?

Patient must give his/her blood sample (for post lunch sugar test) 2hrs after finishing the lunch. The lunch should consist of routine meal which the patient has regularly.

Why must we know our own blood group?

For all practical and routine purposes, it is ideal to transfuse to the patient the same group of blood which he/she belongs to. It is only under very dire emergencies that we take O group as universal donor and AB groups as universal recipient. Under no circumstances O group can get any other blood except O. Similarly A group patient cannot be given B group blood and vice versa.

What does a Complete blood count test include?

Complete Blood Count will tell us Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell count, Red cell indices, Total White Blood Cell count, and Differential count of White blood cells, Platelet count and findings of Peripheral smear.

Do I have to come fasting for a Triple Marker test and what are the pre-requisites for the same?

No need to come fasting. Patient can give a blood sample at any time.
But patient should give us the following information:

  • Exact Date of Birth
  • Weight in Kg
  • Height in cms
  • Exact Date of Last Menstrual Period
  • Xerox of Latest USG Report

What are the precautions to be taken before collecting the semen sample?

Before submitting, keep the following in mind:

  • Abstinence should be ensured for 4-5 days.
  • The total number of days since last ejaculation should be no longer than 4-5 days.
  • Prolonged abstinence (greater than 5 days) may increase the numbers of dead or poorly motile sperm cells.

Do I have to come fasting for HbA1c Test? (GlycoHb)

Fasting is not required for HbA1c test. Patient can give sample at any time.

How many times in a day do I have to give a blood sample for HbA1c test?

Patient has to give blood sample only once in the day.

How frequently should a patient get a HbA1c test done?

Patient should do his/her HbA1c test once in Three months.

What are the tests related to Thyroid?

T3, T4, Free T3, Free T4 and TSH are main tests related to Thyroid functions.

What is Cerebrospinal Fluid?

Cerebrospinal Fluid is the fluid which protects and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

What is a PAP smear test and is it painful?

A PAP smear is a test in which doctor collects a small tissue sample from the cervix (External and Internal parts) and examines the same under the microscope to detect any cancerous cells or any infection.
The procedure is painless and similar to routine gynaecologic (per vaginal) examination. Sometimes, the patient might feel some discomfort. The doctor inserts an instrument called a speculum (it looks like a duck’s bill) into the vagina to see the cervix. Then, using a tiny spatula or brush, the doc takes a sample of cells from the cervix. The cells are sent to a lab for examination.

What happens if the Hemoglobin is low?

Low hemoglobin could be one of the causes of Anemia. Due to anemia patient might feel weak and may experience headache and fatigue.

Whenever I get injured, the bleeding takes a long time to stop. Do I have to do any test for this? Is it abnormal?

Yes, it is necessary to consult the physician and get investigated for bleeding disorders as well as for liver diseases.

Why is a regular health check up important?

As we all know that PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE. Regular health check up will help us to detect the disease in its early stage even before the onset of symptoms. This gives the patient a better chance for treatment and cure.

Which are the blood tests available for HIV?

Tests available for HIV detection in the blood are as follows:

  • HIV p24 antigen
  • HIV antibodies
  • Western Blot test and PCR test


Crown & Bridges

What is a dental crown?

A dental crown completely encases a damaged tooth with a custom design, custom fit cap that fitsv perfectly over a damaged tooth. The crown thereby restores full functionality to a tooth.

What is a dental bridge?

A bridge, also known as a fixed prosthesis, is made to replace one or more missing teeth. Unlike dentures it cannot be removed daily and cleaned. Bridges can be supported in any of three ways:

  • By natural teeth
  • By implants
  • By a combination of teeth and implants

Why are crowns placed?

Crowns may be placed for several reasons. Usually the tooth has been broken or severely damaged by decay. As a result, a filling can’t replace enough of the tooth or make the tooth strong enough. A crown may hold together parts of a cracked tooth. It also can be used to hold a bridge in place. Crowns can be used to improve appearance as well. They may be placed to cover misshapen or badly discolored teeth. They are also used to cover a dental implant. It can also be used to protect a weak tooth from fracturing.

What is the material used for crowns and bridges?

There are 3 primary materials- all ceramic (porcelain), porcelain fused to metal, or gold.

What are side effects of dental bridges?

There is a risk of gum infection and inflammation. There can be allergies to the materials being used. It also requires two healthy teeth adjacent the missing tooth to be shaped to accept the crowns of the new dental bridge.

What are the alternatives to dental bridge?

Dental implants are used for replacing missing teeth today. While dental implants are more costly their benefits are much greater.

What are the different types of bridges?

There are many types of bridges:

  • A cantilever bridge is held in the mouth by one or more crowns on only one side of the space where a tooth is missing.
  • A Maryland bonded bridge consists of a metal framework with “wings” on each side. The wings are bonded to the back of your existing teeth. The false teeth are also bonded to the framework. This type of bridge is also called a resin-bonded bridge or an acid-etched bridge.
  • Bonded bridges usually are not as expensive as traditional bridges. That’s because the adjacent teeth need less preparation and do not get crowns. However, these bridges are only as strong as the bonding material. Resin-bonded bridges tend not to stay cemented in place as well as other kinds in parts of the mouth where there is a lot of biting force. They also may not be the best choice if the wings will have to be small to avoid getting in the way of the bite or the gums.

Root Canal Treatment

What is a Root Canal?

Root canal therapy is necessary when the pulp ie the nerve of the root is removed because it has been irreversibly damaged or infected due to decay, trauma or injuries. The therapy involves removal of the pulp throughout the root, cleaning and shaping the root and filling it with a synthetic polyester root canal filling material.

When do I need a Root Canal?

You need a root canal in case you have one of the following symptoms :

  • Sensitivity to hot or cold that lingers
  • Discomfort when chewing or biting
  • Dull ache or severe pain
  • Discomfort that wakes you up at night
  • Your dentist has diagnosed the need for endodontic treatment either by clinical exam or x-ray.

What will happen at my appointment?

  • We will examine the x-ray and the tooth, then administer a local anesthetic.
  • An opening will be made in the crown of the tooth and small instruments will be used to clean the canals and to shape the canal spaces for filling.
  • Once the canals have been adequately cleaned and shaped, the canals will then be filled with a polyester synthetic root canal filling and sealer.
  • A temporary filling is then placed to close the opening. Your dentist will remove the temporary filling before the tooth is restored.

Will it hurt during the procedure?

With modern techniques and local anesthesia, its likely not to hurt during the procedure. However certain patients feel slightly sensitive.

Will it hurt afterward?

In most cases the discomfort will subside dramatically within the first 24-48 hours. Any sensitivity to cold, hot or even breathing air “in” will be gone after your visit. Nevertheless, you may experience mild discomfort to pressure that could last for several days after treatment. Taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory analgesics (pain killers that are available without a prescription at the chemist) such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin usually relieves this discomfort. Tylenol has been proven not to be as effective as ibuprofen and related medicines. The most common predictor of post-treatment pain is pre-treatment pain. If the tooth is already hurting the root canal procedure will remove the cause and allow healing to begin. During the first 72 – 96 h we will prescribe an analgesic regimen that should allow you to begin healing pain-free. The most common complaint is tenderness to touch, bite, tapping or chewing on the tooth. It is always best to chew on the other side until a permanent restoration replaces the temporary restoration.

Benefits of Root Canal Therapy Versus Extraction?

The single most important benefit of root canal therapy is that you keep your tooth. Extraction may lead to other dental problems. For instance, drifting of teeth, bite problems, TMJ discomfort, and the need to treat adjacent teeth that do not otherwise need dental treatment in order to restore the missing tooth. No matter how effective modern tooth replacements are – and they can be very effective – nothing is a good as your natural tooth.

Will my tooth need any additional treatment after a root canal?

After a root canal, a final restoration will be placed on the tooth. After the restoration a crown i.e. cap will be placed on the tooth since the tooth becomes brittle after root canal procedures and its necessary to prevent the forces acting on the tooth.

How long will my root canal last?

If the root canal has been done in a timely way and after that proper home care is taken and regular periodontal check ups are done, there is a chance that the tooth will last a life time maybe even for life.

If I am not having pain do i still need a root canal?

Pain is only one indication that root canal treatment may be necessary. A healthy patient may harbor an infection inside a tooth, but due to a robust ability to fight infection, the patient may be unaware of what is happening inside the tooth. Your general dentist can often identify these teeth and refer you to an endodontist to have these infected teeth treated by root canal therapy before they cause swelling and pain.
[12/04 2:09 pm] Dr Surendra Pisal:

Dental Floss

Flossing teeth and brushing have the same importance, and we should use the dental floss once a day at least, but ideally should be done after every meal.

How should I floss my teeth?

  • The technique used in flossing is more important than the type of floss you use.
  • Defect floss between your teeth, and then move the floss back and forth on both sides of every tooth, but never instill floss into the gums.
  • When the floss reaches the gum line, make it bend to take the C-shaped on one of the two teeth and then gently rub up and down. The use of the thread can be acquired skill.
  • If you have just started to use floss, be patient, it will become easier with the passage of time.

Why is flossing important?

Floss helps to remove leftover food particles between the teeth and inside the gum pockets, which reduces the volume of plaque inside the mouth. And flossing is especially important in the prevention of gum disease, which is the main cause of tooth loss and the incidence of tooth decay.

How does rinsing help?

As for mouthwash (rinsing), has several functions. Mouthwash genitive fluoride may help in the prevention of tooth decay, but mouthwash cleanser has temporarily kills certain bacteria that cause mouth odors.

Tooth Decay

How does tooth decay happen?

Tooth decay happens when the enamel and dentine of a tooth become softened by acid attack after you have eaten or drunk something that contains sugars. Over time, the acid makes a cavity (hole) in the tooth. ‘Dental decay’ is the same as tooth decay and is also known as ‘dental caries’.

Why does tooth decay happen?

Tooth decay is caused by plaque acids that gradually dissolve away the enamel and dentine of the tooth. Decay damages your teeth and may require fillings or extraction.

What is plaque?

Plaque is a thin, sticky film that keeps forming on your teeth. It contains many types of bacteria.

What is enamel?

Enamel is the hard, protective outer coating of the tooth and is the hardest part of the body. It does not contain any nerves or blood vessels and is not sensitive to pain.

What is dentine?

Dentine lies under the enamel, forming most of the tooth, and it can be very sensitive to pain. Dentine covers the central ‘pulp’ of the tooth.

Why does teeth decay happen?

Decay happens when sugars in food and drinks react with the bacteria in plaque, forming acids. Every time you eat or drink anything containing sugars, these acids attack the teeth and start to soften and dissolve the enamel.

Snacking between meals on sugary or acidic foods and drinks can increase the risk of decay, as the teeth come under constant attack and do not have time to recover. It is therefore important not to keep snacking on sugary foods or sipping sugary drinks throughout the day.

What are the symptoms of dental decay?

In the early stages of dental decay there are no symptoms, but your dentist may be able to spot a cavity in its early stages when they examine or x-ray your teeth. This is why you should visit your dentist regularly, as small cavities are much easier to treat than advanced decay.

What happens if I have a cavity?

Once the cavity has reached the dentine your tooth may become sensitive, particularly with sweet foods and drinks, and acidic or hot foods.

As the decay gets near the dental pulp you may suffer from toothache. If the toothache is brought on by hot or sweet foods this may last for only a few seconds. As the decay gets closer to the dental pulp the pain may last longer. In this case, visit your dentist straight away as the tooth is dying and you may develop a dental abscess if it is not treated on time.

What happens if I don't get the decay treated in time?

Toothache is a sign that you should visit a dentist straight away, as it is a warning that something is wrong. If you don’t do anything, this will usually make matters worse and you may lose a tooth that could otherwise have been saved.

Which areas of my teeth are more likely to decay?

The biting surfaces of the teeth and the surfaces between the teeth are most likely to decay, as food and plaque can get stuck in these areas. But any part of the tooth can be at risk.

What treatment will I require?

If the decay is not too serious, the dentist will remove all the decay and restore the tooth with a filling. Sometimes the nerve in the middle of the tooth can be damaged. If so, the dentist will need to do a root canal treatment by removing the nerve and then restoring the tooth with a filling or a crown. If the tooth is so badly decayed that it cannot be restored, the dentist may have to extract it.

Will I always need a filling?

No. In the very early stages of decay, your dentist may apply a fluoride varnish onto the area. This can help stop further decay and help ‘remineralise’ the tooth. However, it is important to follow the cleaning routine your dentist, using fluoride toothpaste to prevent decay starting again.

What can I do to prevent decay?

The best way to prevent dental decay is by brushing your teeth thoroughly twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, making sure that you brush the inner, outer and biting surfaces of your teeth. Using ‘interdental’ brushes, or dental floss also helps remove plaque and food from between your teeth and where they meet the gums. These are the areas where an ordinary toothbrush can’t reach.

What can I do to protect my teeth against decay?

As each of the adult molars (back teeth) appears, and if the tooth is free from decay, a ‘fissure sealant’ can be used to protect the tooth. The sealant is a plastic coating that fills all the little crevices in the tooth surface, creating a flat surface that is easier to clean. This is called a ‘pit and fissure sealant’. Adults can also have this treatment if the teeth are free from decay. Your dentist will discuss whether this is right for you.

What else can I do?

Visit your dentist regularly, as often as they recommend, and have sugary and acidic food and drinks less often. Avoid snacking between meals to limit the times your teeth are under attack from acids.

Chewing sugar-free gum for up to twenty minutes after a meal can help your mouth produce more saliva, which helps to cancel out any acids which have been formed.

How can Paripoorna help me prevent decay?

Your dentist will show you what areas you need to take most care of while cleaning. They will also show you how to brush and floss correctly.

Tooth Whitening

What is tooth whitening?

Tooth whitening can be a very effective way of lightening the natural colour of your teeth without removing any of the tooth surfaces. It may not make a complete colour change, but it will definitely lighten the existing shade.

Why would I need my teeth whitened?

There are a number of reasons why you might get your teeth whitened. Everyone is different; and just as our hair and skin colour vary, so do our teeth. Very few people have brilliant-white teeth, and our teeth can also become more discoloured as we get older.

Your teeth can also be stained on the surface by food and drinks such as tea, coffee, red wine and blackcurrant. Smoking can also stain teeth.

‘Calculus’ or tartar can also affect the colour of your teeth. Some people may have staining under the surface, which can be caused by certain antibiotics or tiny cracks in the teeth which take up stains.

What are the advantages of teeth bleaching?

This mode of treatment has solely been developed to lighten teeth in a simple and comfortable manner. It can bring about a dramatic change in an almost everyone’s smile by changing a dull smile and yellow teeth to a bright smile with white teeth. The advantages of teeth bleaching are as follows:-

  • Bleaching of healthy teeth is the safest and most conservative cosmetic treatment available for your teeth today.
  • It generally requires no grinding of your teeth.
  • It does not require any anesthesia and is painless and well tolerated.
  • The time taken for bleaching is relatively less considering the number of teeth that can be done at one sitting.
  • Bleaching works very well even when combined with other cosmetic treatment options to enhance the aesthetics of your teeth.
  • The cost of bleaching is less when compared to other full mouth cosmetic treatment options.
  • Bleaching does not damage your teeth, or change the structure of your teeth, nor does it change the shape or form of your teeth.

What does tooth whitening involve?

Professional bleaching is the most usual method of tooth whitening. Your dentist will be able to tell you if you are suitable for the treatment, and will supervise it if you are. First the dentist will put a rubber shield or a gel on your gums to protect them. They will then apply the whitening product to your teeth, using a specially made tray which fits into your mouth like a gum-shield.

How is teeth bleaching done?

Your Dentist will polish your teeth and check their current shade.

First the dentist will protect your gums and lips and will then apply the bleaching agent on the teeth to be lightened and leave it there for a specific period of time. Intermittently, your teeth may be exposed to a special light, which will accelerate the bleaching process. Alternatively, you may be given a tray containing the bleaching agent to wear while in the dental office.

How long does this teeth bleaching take?

The teeth bleaching procedure usually takes about one hour.

How long will my teeth stay whiter?

The effects of whitening are thought to last up to three years. However, this will vary from person to person. The effect is less likely to last as long if you smoke, or eat or drink products that can stain your teeth. Ask your dentist for their opinion before you start the treatment.

Are there any side effects of teeth bleaching?

Some people may find that their teeth become sensitive to cold during or after the treatment. Others may have discomfort in the gums, a sore throat or white patches on the gum line. These symptoms are usually temporary and should disappear within a few days of the treatment finishing.

If any of these side effects continue you should go to your dentist.

When might tooth whitening not work?

Tooth whitening can only lighten your existing tooth colour. Also it only works on natural teeth. It will not work on any types of ‘false’ teeth such as dentures, crowns and veneers.

If your dentures are stained or discoloured visit your dentist and ask for them to be cleaned.

How can I take care of my teeth the whitening procedure?

You can help to keep your teeth white by cutting down on the amount of food and drink you have that can stain teeth. Don’t forget, stopping smoking can also help prevent discolouration and staining.
We recommend the following tips to care for your teeth:

  • brush your teeth for two minutes, twice a day with fluoride toothpaste.
  • cut down on how often you have sugary foods and drinks.
  • visit your dentist regularly, as often as they recommend.

What is the difference between cleaning and whitening?

Cleaning teeth which is professionally called Scaling is the regular removal of stains and tartar from the tooth surface. Whereas teeth bleaching otherwise called tooth whitening is a procedure done to improve the whiteness of the teeth and make it look better cosmetically.

Will my teeth become sensitive after bleaching?

Teeth may be sensitive during the week following the bleaching. This can be dramatically reduced by using Sensodyne toothpaste to brush your teeth the week prior to and the week following the bleaching process.

Is bleaching for you?

Generally, bleaching is successful in at least 90 percent of patients, though it may not be an option for everyone. Consider tooth bleaching if your teeth are darkened from age, coffee, tea or smoking. Teeth darkened with the color of yellow, brown or orange respond better to lightening.

What is the right age for bleaching?

The minimum suggested age for any type of bleaching is around the age of 14. It is best when root development is complete.

Is teeth bleaching safe?

The American Dental Association recognizes bleaching as the most effective short-term duration treatment in the lightening of tooth color when performed under dental supervision. The bleaching solution can cause teeth to become temporarily temperature sensitive. This goes away within a few days of bleaching completion and no long-term ill effects have been reported.

How much whiter can bleaching make my teeth?

The bleaching effect on each person is different, and it also depends on the cause of the discoloration. Generally the whitening effect will look more dramatic when you start off with darker teeth than if you already have lighter coloured teeth.

What is teeth cleaning / scaling?

Teeth’s cleaning is a part of oral hygiene and involves the removal of dental plaque from teeth with the intention of preventing cavities and gum diseases.